Technical Committee on Database Languages

The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) International Committee on Information Technology Standards (NCITS) Technical Committee on Database,DM32, was founded in 1978. This is its current "moniker" While its charter has remained substantively the same, Its name has morphed over the years from X3H2 to just H2 to DM32.2 and now is just DM32. This committee meets six  or more times per year.

Information Technology Standards are successful only when three conditions exist:

  • A significant market share vendor community
  • Publicly developed, available, and evolving standards
  • Enforced conformance tests

These conditions are described in the paper, The Essential Paradigm for Successful IT Standards

Starting in 1978, DM32 considered hundreds of technical change proposals to the CODASYL 1978 JOD, and in August, 1984, finished work on the first American National Standard for database, NDL. This standard modeled after the CODASYL data model was released for public review in January, 1985. It was accepted as an American National Standard in 1986. The standard specifies the syntax and semantics for both schema and subschema of network structured databases, and specifies the semantics for a data manipulation language.

In late 1982, ANSI DM32 began to standardize a version of the relational data model through the IBM donated language, SEQUEL. Basic SQL was completed and became an American National Standard in 1986. DM32 completed the 1989, 1992 and object oriented, non-relational SQL:1999, and 2003 standards, subsequently, SQL:2008, SQL:2012, SQL:2016, and is now concluding SQL:2021 the SQL standard contains:

  1. Six interfaces to compiler based languages such as Ada, C, COBOL, and Fortran;
  2. Full referential Integrity
  3. Multiple-language support, transaction management, two-phase commit, etc.
  4. Abstract data types, nested data structures within columns, and a number of object oriented facilities
  5. SQL/MM for BLOBS, text processing, and libraries of scientific and geologic abstract data types
  6. Remote Data Access protocols for generic distributed processing and for SQL specializations
  7. SQL/PSM, the SQL programming language for persistent stored modules that are defined and controlled by SQL
  8. SQL/CLI, a common call level interfaces that standardizes the CALLs interface between products from multiple vendors in the SQL family.

For a comprehensive description of SQL  download SQLBOM from the free downloads section of this website and also visit, Also check out SQL Papers located here.

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